A phenomenon of surface energy plays a central role in
analyses of most aspects of phase transitions in general and crystallization
specifically. If for liquid surface energy (tension) can be measured directly
for crystals such measurements practically impossible to carry out with any
level of reliability. Most pronounce phenomena where surface energy of
crystalline phase could be estimated on the base of experimental data are
kinetic of crystal nucleation and growth. There two major complica...
A process of phase transition of first-order
such as crystallization
is accompanied with heat release that reflected a difference between energy levels
of crystal phase and surrounding it matter that is the 'soil' for the growing
crystal. The amount of heat is equivalent to difference of enthalpies between
characterized crystalline phase and in initial phase :
Qcryst =-ΔH = Hcryst - Hraw
where ΔH - change of enthalpy during crystal
growth, Hcryst and Hr...
Crystals are state of the matter with long-range order of atoms in it.
It means that in some direction the pattern of atoms locations will periodically
repeat themselves. Conventionally this statement will be true in any direction in three dimensional
space but for some special cases such as liquid-crystals (yes, it may be the key material in your
computer monitor you staring now at) in some directions atoms will be randomly located but in others could have a long-range order.