software for data presentation, statistical analysis, marketing and prediction.
Data from text ANSI files; database (like MS Access) files; clipboard memory content for example after copying area in MS Excel table; image of chart or just typing in notes from working journal can be used as a source to import data in LeoStatistic. To import data existing in outside storage with LeoStatistic following steps have to be done:
Step 1. The first step is common for all mentioned above sources.
In the control panel of LeoStatistic click on the tab "Data" and then click on the button "Add" as it is shown on the picture:
The dialog panel with available options will appear:
If you have in mind to type data in created empty data series (table) you should chose number of columns by printing its names. An equivalent number of columns (fields) will be created. Later on you will be able to edit as number of columns as well their names by the way.
If you already have at least one series opened in LeoStatistic there is a limitation on number of the columns that can be created by any of the presented methods - it must be exact equal to the number of fields in existed data series (tables). From image only two fields can be added in general.
Click button "Next".
a) From text ANSI file.
Chose the file by browsing your computer that contains lines of data. Two example of legitimate format of such file is presented below:
Example 1: x y 1.05 3.4 2.3 4.3 5 1.2e1 9 24 Example 2: 6, 4, 2 3 , 2.3, 1 2e0 , 1.2, 7.33 43.1 ,1.e3, 33.6 54, 222, 44 77,555, 67 99, 777.5, 88 104, 1000.e-10, 88
The first line can contain a names of columns; if it doesn't the program will assign names in the style a0, a1, ... aN where N is number of columns. The actual dissection of the first line will be present in the appeared dialog panel for Example 2 like this:
This is actually a wrong situation as soon each field must contain only numerical letters divided by except separator letters. By default space and "tab" sign are considered as separators. User can add any number of separators. In presented case the commas are used as separators and as such must be type in "Separators" edit control as it shown in next picture:
One also can select fields these have to be read by clicking on the corresponding lines.
Click "OK" to read data.
When a data source is a text file there is special option to automatically renewing data that can be helpful in case of observation of gathering experimental results in real time. To do this:
The example file spiral.txt will produce following picture when added as a first series in LeoStatistic:
b) From database file.
LeoStatistic can import data saved in database file. As soon there are numerous formats and variations of SQL syntactic of databases our advise is to check comparability of LeoStatistic with your database files as a first task during trial period if you consider it as a primary data source. Usually database software offers an option to export a table as a text file. So it could be alternative path to get data into LeoStatistic.Browse your file system and open the database file. For example you can download and use as a test example the MS Access file couple.mdb
In the the dialog do select one table of the database that contains the data or use advantage of running your own sophisticated SQL statement to create dataset with special properties that could sometime perform a fancy job.
No matter if you select one of the tables or run SQL-statement next "Database" dialog will be displayed with available fields like this.
Important to know that only fields in numerical or text format containing only numerical letters will be read in LeoStatistic. In case of breaking this rule for any cells all corrupted records will be skipped during reading. The same is valid for situation if you run SQL-statement.
As a demonstration of ability of SQL statements to produce meaningful calculation lets solve small statistic-combinatorial problem:Let presume that we have a data of the age of bachelors males and females in table "couple" in our example couple.mdb database. The task is to find a distribution of all possible age distinctions for different gender couples.
1) With the help of master of queries in original database application such as MS Access we will create two query: age_male and age_female by running SQL-statements:
SELECT age INTO age_female FROM couple WHERE gender=”f”
SELECT age INTO age_male FROM couple WHERE gender=”m”
2) Then run LeoStatictic. Go to tab "Data"; click "Add" button; select "couple.mdb" file; type SQL-statement:SELECT age_male.age-age_female.age as d_age FROM age_male, age_female;
click "OK"; select "d_age" field, click "OK"; go to "View" tab and click distribution button . The result image will be like this:
It is worth to note that in the spite that the initial couple table contains only 49 records a result of running. shown above SQL statements, we will have all possible combinations of age variance in different gender couples - 600 cases at all.
c) From clipboard.
If you use external application like a MS Excel for data preparing an import them into LeoStatistic cannot be more easier. Just select the region with data, click "Copy". Then in LeoStatistic choose "Paste from clipboard" and click on "Next". If the first row on selected region contains names of fields they will be assigned in LeoStatistic. If selected area contains not names at first row, names of parameters in LeoStatistic will be given in style = a0, a1, a2 and so on.
Note: The format of table in clipboard is based on "Tab" separators between cells and "end of string" used as end of row. Standard sources of such data are spreadsheet or Tables in MS Access or MS Word.
d) From image.
One of the most distinguish features of LeoStatistic is an ability extract and to import data from image. Scientists often have an impulse when reading article in professional journal to try to analyze presented data. Quite often they a given in form of figures. To get curves in numerical form is a challenging and let's say the truth a very dull and routine job. LeoStatistic can help to make in fast an accurate.
Chose "Image" and click "Next" in "Import Data" dialog. The window that will give an ability to transfer visual data into numerical form will appear.
Import your picture. There are two options to do this.
1) From any image file in any of most popular formats. Click on the button "From file". Browse and chose the file all most common formats like bmp, gif, jpg are supported. As an example you can use the image of the picture: temperature dependence of theoretical strength of ceramic materials .
2) Paste image from clipboard. Most useful this option can be in case of internet published articles. Usually internet browsers permit to click on right button of the mouse when cursor is on the image evoking popup menu with element - "copy image". Choose it. Click on button "Paste from image from clipboard" in LeoStatistic and get a picture. Of course any image from clipboard memory will do the job.
Set physical coordinates on the chart: 1) Push down a button "Select chart area" and drag green rectangle expanding it in that way to cover a chart area with your data. Set minimum and maximum values of the rectangle area as it can be read from legend of the axes at the picture.
By clicking by left button on the line or marks user is selecting records these later on will be imported in LeoStatistic. "Alt +click" combination will remove the point pointed by cursor. After reaching satisfying result like shown on picture:
click on "OK" button. The data series containing two parameters will be created in LeoStatistic. For presented case the screen of LeoStatistic will look like this:
In a case when one curve in the image are contrast enough and can be isolated, LeoStatistic is able to set marks automatically. To do this at first press down button "Chose data area" and drag red rectangle to cover all this area. Press one of two buttons "Line" or "Marks". If a result of selection will be not satisfactory click on button "Remove points inside" and repeat the procedure with other setting of contrast sensibility.
e) Create empty series.
LeoStatistic will at once create empty series with number and names of parameters reflected printed in the edit control.Later actual data have to be print out and all data edited as it is described in data manipulation page. General idea is to press "Show data" button at "Data" tab and input data one by one in the grid like control.
Reading image file.
Latest addition for LeoStatistic is the ability to read data directly from the image file. To do it go to Menu->Data->Read image file->as RGB (or HSV).
The standard file search dialog will appear. Select any image file and open
it. Depend on what color representation model you will chose histogram of colors
distribution will be displayed. For example for the picture with basic red,
green, blue color areas :
distribution colors in RGB scheme will be like this:
HSV (Hue - direction from white color - the color itself, Saturation - intensity of color, Value - darkness) scheme of color representation has the advantage of separation colors in image permitting at least to count the number of brushes on palette in the image.
The exact formula of calculating hue is quite complex. One can see that colors of spectra spread from red 0 to red on other side 255 (violet is 200, green 81 and blue 162). Saturation is calculated as an average deviation from value and normalized to interval 0-255. Value in its part is here an average of RGB values.
Note and warning. The image contains a lot of data. Due to representation of the data in LeoStatistic a million of records that is usual for even average size image file will slow down a time of calculations especially for some of the statistical schemes. Just use common sense and be caution.
Screenshots of the LeoStatistic software:
click on picture to enlarge
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